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AWNL 你所不知道的瑞典M陨石

来源: 会员投稿
  发布时间:2018-03-07 15:48:00
导读】AWNL 的 M系列--瑞典陨石系列,采用瑞典北部独有的天外陨石,这种稀世之宝,很多国人还不太了解,在维基百科上扒了下来,原文和翻译如下。配以图片。AWNL 的M 限量系列,每年只有200条左右产量,买到赚到!

  AWNL 的 M系列--瑞典陨石系列,采用瑞典北部独有的天外陨石,这种稀世之宝,很多国人还不太了解,在维基百科上扒了下来,原文和翻译如下。配以图片。AWNL 的M 限量系列,每年只有200条左右产量,买到赚到!

  Muonionalusta 大约在公元前一百万年落在北欧斯堪的纳维亚半岛,即现在的瑞典和芬兰交界处以西,精八面体,IVA类陨石群组

  1906年,第一块Muonionalusta陨石,在瑞典Kitkiöjärvi村附近被发现[1]。至今大约有四十件是已知的,有些相当大。其他碎片集中在距离北极圈以北约140公里的北博滕省Pajala区的25×15公里)的地区。很多陨石猎人常年在此寻宝。

  1910年,陨石首先由A. G.Högbom教授公布于众,他用Muonio河附近的一个地名将陨石命名为“Muonionalusta”。

  Muonionalusta这个名字对于某些人来说很难发音:Muonio河上的muoni-显然是[mu-o-ni-o-na-lu-sta]或者/ MOO-oh-ne-oh-nah-loo-stah /意味着'食物'); - (o)n-可能是需要的连接词;最后一个元素alusta的意思是'基地,基础,立场,垫子,托盘',因此可能是'穆尼奥(河流)基地'。

  1948年NilsGöranDavid Malmqvist教授对陨石进行深入研究[2]  Muonionalusta,可能是已知最古老的陨石(4.56530亿年),[3]在科学上,它标志着铁陨石中首次发现超石英。

  研究表明它是大约一百万年前在第四纪时期造访地球的最古老的陨石,为一颗小行星的铁质内核。当它落在我们的星球上时,它碎成了许多碎片。[4]自从降落地球以来,陨石经历了四个冰河时期。从北部苔原的冰川中发掘出来,有一个坚固的风化表面。

  对这种应强烈冲击而变质的铁陨石的最新分析显示,其含镍量为8.4%,痕量稀有元素为0.33 ppm镓,0.133 ppm锗和1.6 ppm铱。它还含有矿物铬铁矿,daubréelite,schreibersite,akaganite和硫铁矿包裹体[2],不含有放射物质,对人体无害。

  这是第一次,分析证明了Stishovite超石英的存在,这种石英为极高压力的石英石变化而成[2],可能是鳞石英后的假晶。参考文献“在铁陨石中首次发现石英石”:[1]

  Stishovite是SiO2的一种高压多晶型,是一种非常稀有的矿物......并且仅在与少数陨石撞击结构有关的情况下才发现......显然,陨石石英晶体不可能来自等核压力母体的小行星....人们可以大胆假设,在Muonionalusta陨石中石笋的形成与撞击事件有关。

  2010年的一项研究报告了Muonionalusta陨石中的铅同位素测年,并得出结论说,stishovite来自数亿年前的一次撞击事件

  The Muonionalusta is a meteorite classified as fine octahedrite, type IVA (Of) which impacted in northern Scandinavia, west of the border between Sweden and Finland, about one million years BCE.

  The first fragment of the Muonionalusta was found in 1906 near the village of Kitkiöjärvi.[1] Around forty pieces are known today, some being quite large. Other fragments have been found in a 25-by-15-kilometre (15.5 mi × 9.3 mi) area in the Pajala district of Norrbotten County, approximately 140 kilometres (87 mi) north of the Arctic Circle.

  The meteorite was first described in 1910 by Professor A. G. Högbom, who named it "Muonionalusta", after a nearby place on the Muonio River. It was studied in 1948 by Professor Nils Göran David Malmqvist.[2] The Muonionalusta, probably the oldest known meteorite (4.5653 billion years),[3] marks the first occurrence of stishovite in an iron meteorite.

  The name Muonionalusta is difficult for some to pronounce: ['mu-o-ni-o-na-lu-sta] or /MOO-oh-ne-oh-nah-loo-stah/ from the Muonio River (muoni- apparently means ‘food’); -(o)n- could be a needed connective; the final element alusta means ‘base, foundation, a stand, mat, tray’, thus probably ‘Munio (River) base’.

  Studies have shown it to be the oldest discovered meteorite impacting the Earth during the Quaternary Period, about one million years ago. It is quite clearly part of the iron core or mantle of a planetoid, which shattered into many pieces upon its fall on our planet.[4] Since landing on Earth the meteorite has experienced four ice ages. It was unearthed from a glacial moraine in the northern tundra. It has a strongly weathered surface covered with cemented faceted pebbles.

  New analysis of this strongly shock-metamorphosed iron meteorite has shown a content of 8.4% nickel and trace amounts of rare elements—0.33 ppm gallium, 0.133 ppm germanium and 1.6 ppm iridium. It also contains the minerals chromite, daubréelite, schreibersite, akaganéiteand inclusions of troilite.[2] For the first time, analysis has proved the presence of a form of quartz altered by extremely high pressure—stishovite,[2] probably a pseudomorphosis after tridymite. From the article "First discovery of stishovite in an iron meteorite":[1]

  Stishovite, a high pressure polymorph of SiO2, is an exceptionally rare mineral...and has only been found in association with a few meteorite impact structures.... Clearly, the meteoritic stishovite cannot have formed by isostatic pressure prevailing in the core of the parent asteroid.... One can safely assume then that stishovite formation (in the Muonionalusta meteorite) is connected with an impact event. The glass component might have formed directly as a shock melt....

  A 2010 study reported the lead isotope dating in the Muonionalusta meteorite and concluded the stishovite was from an impact event hundreds of millions of years ago: "The presence of stishovite signifies that this meteorite was heavily shocked, possibly during the 0.4 Ga [billion years] old breakup event indicated by cosmic ray exposure...."[3]

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